Challenges originating from geopolitical developments, increased refugee flows as well as terrorism and conflicts also complicate the global economic outlook. We also met at a time of continued shifts and profound transformations in the configuration of the global economic landscape and dynamics for growth.With these transformations come challenges and uncertainties as well as opportunities.
This is a list of countries by public debt to GDP ratio as listed by CIA's World Factbook 2017.
It is the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.
He served as minister of state and finance of Portugal during 2011–13.
He was head of the European Commission’s Bureau of European Policy Advisers during 2007–10 and director-general of research at the European Central Bank from 1998 to 2004.
The data on water consumption in the world is provided by the United Nations (UN, UNESCO, and FAO, see list of publications below).
Worldwide, agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption, compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use.Vitor Gaspar is director of the Fiscal Affairs Department of the IMF.Prior to joining the IMF, he held a variety of senior policy positions in Banco de Portugal, including most recently as special adviser.Freshwater withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years.Demand for freshwater is increasing by 64 billion cubic meters a year (1 cubic meter = 1,000 liters) Almost 80% of diseases in so called "developing" countries are associated with water, causing some three million early deaths.The figures here are represented as a percentage of annual gross domestic product.