Andrew Kulikovsky spoke on one occasion and John Hartnett spoke on 2 occasions. About half those who are on the committee are YECs and the others doubt the YEC position to various degrees.Jim raised some interesting points but I don’t believe that he addressed the central points that Justin raised.
Other isotopes are unstable because the different number of neutrons interacts with the other atomic components in such a way that, over a period of time, the isotope changes into some other atom.
When these unstable isotopes change to a different atom, they emit radioactivity. An important property of radioactive isotopes is the half-life — the time it takes for half of the atoms to undergo the transition from one atom to the other.
Heavy water refers to water in which each hydrogen atom has a neutron.
Some isotopes, like deuterium, are stable; they’re perfectly happy with the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons they have.
Materials such as shells and other materials where a date on the inorganic carbon (carbonate) is to be done typically undergo acid etching before pretreatment.
The occurrence of contamination can be natural or artificial.
Jim stated that “uranium is preferentially encased in these [zircon] crystals while lead is preferentially excluded” but did not fully explain the significance of this.
It can be experimentally confirmed that molten Zircon rejects lead.
Scientists estimate that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old, based on radioisotope dating techniques.
To understand how this process works, you need to know a little bit about atoms and isotopes.
Natural contamination pertains to the introduction of contaminants to the sample by its surrounding material.