Other artifacts found along with the textiles had been dated to 12,000 ago and even older.
However, the textiles themselves had never been dated, and whether they too were that old had been controversial, according to Edward Jolie, an archaeologist at Mercyhurst College (PA) who led this latest research.
However, they are relatively expensive when compared with similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers.
To produce a carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (making it strong for its size).
This book, co-written by Fanti and Saverio Gaeta, is the exciting account of a discovery and the story of the extraordinary historical events of the most precious and revered relic of Christianity. The book apparently documents the recent Shroud testing done by Fanti and his research team at the University of Padua and reports the results of some chemical and mechanical tests they performed which they claim "confirms that the Shroud dates back to the 1st century." A pretty powerful statement for sure, but that is not the major problem.
You can find a more detailed report about their research on the .
The third was a multi-parametric mechanical test based on five different mechanical parameters linked to the voltage of the wire.
The machine used to examine the Shroud's fibres and test traction, allowed researchers to examine tiny fibres alongside about twenty samples of cloth dated between 3000 BC and 2000 AD.
The cave had been disturbed frequently by human and geological activity, so it was possible that the textiles could have belonged to much more recent inhabitants.
What's more, the prior radiocarbon dates for the site had been taken from bone, obsidian, and charcoal -- items that are known to sometimes produce inaccurate radiocarbon ages.
"Final results show that the Shroud fibres examined produced the following dates, all of which are 95% certain and centuries away from the medieval dating obtained with Carbon-14 testing in 1988: the dates given to the Shroud after FT-IR testing, is 300 BC 400, 200 BC 500 after Raman testing and 400 AD 400 after multi-parametric mechanical testing.